‘Atiqot 87 (2016)
Remains from the End of the Early Chalcolithic and the Late Chalcolithic Periods at Kaukab Springs in the Western Galilee
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–41*; English summary, p. 103–105)
Keywords: Lower Galilee, brick walls, settlement distribution, economy, fauna, flint, basalt chalice, violin-shaped figurine
Excavations at the Kaukab Springs site revealed two Chalcolithic-period strata: one from Early Chalcolithic 3 (Stratum III) and the other from the Late Chalcolithic (Stratum II). The site is important for the study of the transition between the Early Chalcolithic 3 and the Late Chalcolithic periods. The architectural traditions and the finds from each of these periods indicate a clear relationship between the Galilee sites and ‘En ‘Esur, as well as local variations in the region between the Sharon plain and the Galilee. After its abandonment in the Late Chalcolithic period, the site was reoccupied in the Intermediate Bronze Age.
A Chalcolithic Settlement at Tel Shevaʻ
(Hebrew, pp. 43*–69*; English summary, p. 106)
Keywords: Negev, settlement, Byzantine period, weights, spindle whorls, copper, bone tools
Salvage excavations at Tel Shevaʻ uncovered the remains of a Chalcolithic-period settlement. The architectural remains consisted mainly of pits of different sizes and types, which were dug into the loess soil; they served as refuse pits in their final stage of use. The fill within the pits comprised soil and ash accumulations, mixed with potsherds, flints and animal bones, reflecting a broad range of domestic activities that had once been carried out on surface level. The site appears to have been the largest of the Ghassulian-culture sites in the Be’er Shevaʻ Valley.
Late Ptolemaic Assemblages of Metal Artifacts and Bronze Coins Recovered off the Coast of ‘Atlit
Ehud Galili, Danny Syon, Gerald Finkielsztejn, Varda Sussman and Guy D. Stiebel
Keywords: Mediterranean coast, maritime archaeology, ship cargo, weight system, administration, measurements, numismatics, epigraphy, war ship, merchant ship, stamps, devices
Artifacts uncovered during underwater excavations and surveys in the northern bay of ‘Atlit were assigned to seven assemblages dating to the Hellenistic period. The finds include a ship’s prow, a battering ram, a horse bridle and bit, bronze coins, square lead scale weights, lead pyramidal fishing sinkers, a bronze oil lamp and a lead sling shot. Some of the scale weights are inscribed and dated; most of the lead pyramidal fishing sinkers relate to a weight standard common in northern Phoenicia. It is assumed that several or all of the finds originated in the same wreckage event, possibly the consequence of a military campaign, connected with the Ptolemaic operation in the region.
Subterranean Complex 147 at Maresha: The Construction Phases of the Columbarium
Ian Stern, Bernie Alpert and Amos Kloner
Keywords: Judean Shephelah, Ptolemaic rule, historical sources, agriculture, industry
Excavations in Subterranean Complex 147 in Maresha revealed several building phases of the large columbarium. The fill within the installation consisted of pottery ranging in date from the Iron Age II through the Hellenistic period, mainly from the second century BCE. Columbaria had an important function in the lifestyle of the local population in the Judean Shephelah in general, and at Maresha in particular. This is connected with fact that pigeons were a source of food, a cultic offering, and their droppings were used as fertilizer.
Excavations at the Nabatean Site of ‘En Tamar
Keywords: Negev, Nabatean pottery, cultivation, farmhouse, Judean balsam (opobalsam), economy, numismatics
A structure was uncovered at ‘En Tamar, located south of the Dead Sea. Most of the ceramic finds and the glass material from the structure date to the Late Roman period (second–early third centuries CE). Earlier ceramic material, dated to the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods (second century BCE–early first century CE), along with Nabatean coins from these periods, were also found. The abandonment of the site in the early third century CE fits a pattern of abandoned sites that was observed in a number of sites in the Negev, possibly due to the spread of epidemic.
The Glass Vessels from ‘En Tamar
Keywords: Negev, Late Roman period, glass typology
The glass finds from the salvage excavation at ‘En Tamar were in relatively poor condition. They comprise fragments of bowls, beakers and bottles, dating to the second−third centuries CE; one bottle dates to a later presence at the site, in the eighth−ninth centuries CE.
A Villa and a Pottery Kiln from the Late Roman–Byzantine Periods at ‘En Ya‘al (Nahal Refa’im), Jerusalem
(with a contribution by Anat Cohen-Weinberger)
(Hebrew, pp. 71*–119*; English summary, pp. 107–110)
Keywords: Floor tiles, bricks, hot-air ventilation pipe, tubulus, bathhouse, earthquake, petrography, spoilers, Tenth Legion, art, updraft kiln
The excavation on the northern bank of Nahal Refa’im in Jerusalem unearthed the remains of three occupation phases: architectural remains from the late Hellenistic or Early Roman period (Stratum III); part of a Roman villa (Stratum II); and a pottery kiln from the Late Roman–Early Byzantine periods (Stratum I). Sections of two rooms belonging to the Roman villa were exposed; the southern room was decorated with colored wall paintings, and its floor was adorned with mosaics. The villa may have been part of an estate granted to a Roman army veteran or officer. Above the ruins of the villa, a pottery workshop was constructed. Intact and broken pottery vessels were found inside the firing box, mainly of two types, platters and jar lids, suggesting that they were produced at the workshop.
A Mosaic Floor with
at ‘En Yaʻal (Nahal Refa’im), Jerusalem
(Hebrew, pp. 121*–126*; English summary, pp. 111–112)
Keywords: Roman East, art, emblema, North Africa, triclinium
Two rooms of a Late Roma-period villa were exposed on the northern bank of Nahal Refa’im, Jerusalem. The southern room was paved with a white mosaic floor adorned with two colored panels: one, enclosed in a wide frame, contains
that usually adorn the floors of dining or reception rooms, and the other, is adorned with an intersecting rosette pattern. The composition, the colors and the quality of the mosaics indicate a third-century CE date.
Fragments of a Roman-Period Wall Painting at ‘En Ya‘al (Nahal Refa’im), Jerusalem
Keywords: Late Roman period, art, pigment, composition
Seventy-five painted plaster fragments were found in the Roman villa excavated on the northern bank of Nahal Refa’im. The fragments are painted in basic colors: white, red, green and black. The poor technique and the dullness of the colors indicate that the murals should be dated between the late second and the early third centuries CE.
Coins from ‘En Ya‘al (Nahal Refa’im), Jerusalem
Donald T. Ariel
Keywords: Byzantine period, numismatics
Eleven bronze coins were found, none of them were
. The earliest coins date to the Hasmonean period (first century BCE), and the rest date to the fourth century CE, probably relating to the pottery kiln exposed at the site.
The Flour Mills in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko
(with a contribution by Gerald Finkielsztejn)
(Hebrew, pp. 127*–140*; English summary, pp. 113–115)
Keywords: Na’aman marshes, British Mandate, technology, installations, Napoleon cannon balls, numismatics
The flour mills, located on an island southeast of Tel ‘Akko, were powered by water, which was diverted to the mills by means of channels. The excavations exposed fifteen pairs of millstones set within five buildings. Pottery finds and Zanjid coins attest that the mills operated as early as the Crusader period (twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE); the main period of use was in the Ottoman period, from the eighteenth until the beginning of the twentieth centuries CE.
Architectural Analysis of the Flour-Mill Compound in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko
(Hebrew, pp. 141*–157*; English summary, pp. 116–118)
Keywords: Na’aman marshes, technology, terminology, installation, numismatics, Baha-Ullah House, aruba, miglash
In the course of conservation works carried out in the flour-mill compound in ‘Akko, the remains of the mills were documented and their various elements and methods of operation were studied. An analysis of the water-powered technology indicated that the mills were operated by the slanting-chute technology. The water from Nahal Na‘aman was conveyed to the mills by channels. These mills are part of the flour-production industry that flourished in the country during the Ottoman period.
The Ceramic Finds from the Ottoman Flour Mills in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko
Edna J. Stern
Keywords: Mediterranean coast, Ottoman Empire, maritime trade, local production, typology, import
The pottery assemblage from the excavation of the ‘Akko Mills includes mainly Late Ottoman wares (eighteenth–nineteenth centuries CE), as well as two earlier sherds dating to the Crusader and Mamluk periods. The Ottoman pottery includes unglazed local wares, Rashaya el-Fukhar painted wares, imported cooking vessels and imported glazed bowls and a basin. The findings indicate that imported vessels were not considered luxury ware and were used by the workers in the mills for daily consumption. The pottery was probably brought to ‘Akko by sea, reflecting the local and international maritime trade that took place at the port of ‘Akko during the Late Ottoman period.
Ottoman Clay Tobacco Pipes and Nargile Heads from the Flour Mills in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko
Keywords: Mediterranean coast, Ottoman Empire, smoking, typology
Clay tobacco pipes and nargile heads were unearthed in the flour mills in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko. They were most probably used by the workers of the mills. Based on previous researches and studies, the tobacco pipes and the nargile heads should be dated between the eighteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries CE.
The Coins from the Flour Mills in the Ridwan Gardens, ‘Akko
(Hebrew, pp. 159*–160*; English summary, p. 119)
The excavations in the flour-mills compound yielded 15 coins. The earliest coin dates to the Byzantine period and the latest, to the first years of the State of Israel. Most of the coins date to the Ottoman period, pointing to the main period when the mills operated, in the first half of the nineteenth century CE.
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